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Zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza spiro mankhwala

Zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza spiro mankhwala

Kuyamba kwa mankhwala a Spiro

Pulojekiti ya spiro ndi gulu lopangidwa ndi tizilombo timene timakhala timene timagwiritsa ntchito bicyclic tikulumikizidwa ndi atomu imodzi. Mwachilengedwe, mapangidwe a mpheteyo akhoza kukhala ofanana kapena osiyana, ndipo atomu yolumikiza mphete ziwiri imatchedwa spiroatom (atomu ya mpweya), kawirikawiri Icho ndi chiwerengero cha 4 kaboni (chomwe chimadziŵika ngati mpweya wa mpweya), ndipo ikhoza Komanso khalani silicon, phosphorous, kapena arsenic. Atomu ya spiro nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi atomu ya carbon. Chipangizo cha spiro chidzagwiritsira ntchito olemba malemba kuti alembe chiwerengero cha mphete mosiyana. Nambala ya mphete imakhalanso ndi atomu ya spiro yokha, ndipo nambala yaing'ono idzakhala patsogolo pa nambalayi ndi kulekanitsidwa ndi dontho.

Maselo awiri mu molekyu amagawana atomu ya mpweya (mu mankhwala ena, maatomu ena, monga silicon, phosphorous, arsenic, ndi zina). Mphete ziwirizo zili pa ndege ziwiri zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pozungulira: Zomwe zimapangidwanso kuti spiro compounds ndi chiral ndipo zingathetsedwe kuti zikhale zowoneka bwino. Malinga ndi mawonekedwe, chithandizo cha H2C = C = CH2 ndi mphete yosavuta kwambiri, ndipo chithandizo cholowera m'malo mofanana ndi 1,3-propadienediic acid chiri chogwiritsidwa ntchito mokhazikika ndipo chingagawanike kukhala awiri opangira ma isomers. thupi.

Zolemba

(1) Malingana ndi chiwerengero cha ma atomu a spiro, spiro kagawo akhoza kuikidwa kukhala gulu limodzi la spiro, dispiro, spiro katatu, ndi makina osiyanasiyana omwe ali ndi ma atomu ambirimbiri.

(2) Carbocyclic spiro ndi phokoso la spiro likhoza kufotokozedwa malinga ndi mtundu wa atomu womwe ulipo, ndipo pamene atomu ya carbon yomwe imapanga carbocyclic spiro compound ikulowetsedwera ndi atomu ina, chipangizo cha spiro chipangidwe chimapangidwa.

(3) Malingana ndi mtundu wa mphete, ikhoza kugawidwa mu zowonjezera, unsaturated, zonunkhira ndi aliphatic spiro mankhwala.

(4) Kukonzekera heterospirocyclic mankhwala. Atomu ya spiro m'kati mwa spiro akhoza kukhala atomu ya mpweya kapena zinthu zina monga Si, N, P, Ge ndi zina zotero. Ngati atomu ya spiro ndi atomu yachitsulo, chigwirizano cha mgwirizanowu chimapangidwa, ndipo gulu la spiro ngatilo limatchulidwa kuti ndigwirizanitsa chigawo cha heterocyclic.

Polymeric spiro mankhwala

Polymeric spiro mankhwala ndi kuphatikiza kwa ma atomu awiri kapena ambiri monga mphete zitatu kapena zambiri. Pogwiritsa ntchito chipangizo cha spiro, chiwerengero cha chiwerengero chomwe chimaphatikiza di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., dzina lake amatanthawuza chiwerengero cha ma atomu a spiro omwe alipo mosiyana pakati pa mphetezo. Maatomu omwe ali m'gulu la spiro awerengedweratu. Mmene mawu a polyspirocyclic amayamba, amayamba ndi molecule yamphongo yomwe imagwirizanitsa atomu ya spiro, yomwe imatchedwa ring ring. Mamolekyu amenewa amatha kukhala ndi mphete ziwiri kapena zingapo ndipo amamangiriridwa ku makina osiyanasiyana. Pakati pawo, atomu imodzi yokha imagwirizanirana wina ndi mnzake. Dzina lakuti nomenclature mu mphete yotsiriza limayambika ndi atomu pafupi ndi atomu ya spiro, yotchedwa chiwerengero cha 1, ndipo molekyu ndiye imawerengedwa kuyambira ndi molecule.

Mizere iwiri kapena yowonjezera, nambala yoyamba ya mphete yotsiriza idzakhala ndi njira ina yosankhira. Pamene spiroatom yoyamba ikuwerengedwa, zotsatira za spiro mankhwala zimayenera kugwirizanitsidwa ndi zing'onozing'ono zowoneka. Kuwerenga. Tiyerekeze kuti pali pulogalamu yomwe ili ndi mphete ziwiri, imodzi ndi ma atomu a 6 ndipo ina ndi ma atomu a 8. Kuwerengera kwayamba ndi mphete ya ma atomu a 6, chifukwa pambuyo pa chiwerengero, spiroatom idzawerengedwa 6. Ngati mphete ili ndi ma atomu a 8 ayamba, spiroatom iwerengedwa 8. Malangizo a chiwerengero amatsimikiziridwa ndi spiroatom (kuyambira pa spiroatom yoyamba ya mphete yowonongeka kale). Tangoganizani kuti atomu ya nkhono ikuyamba kuwerengera mbali imodzi, ndipo ngati chiwerengerocho sichiri chiwerengero chosiyana, nambala ya nkhono imasankhidwa. Malangizo ndi nambala yaing'ono amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyambitsa kutchulidwa. Mu yotsatira atomu yapamwamba, chiwerengero cha chiwerengero sichiri chofunikira kwambiri. Nthawi zina, zoyamba ziwiri, zitatu, zinayi kapena zinayi zapiroatoms zidzakonzedweratu ku nambala yomweyo mosasamala kanthu komwe ziwerengedwa. Kusankhidwa kwa chiwerengero cha chiwerengero kumasankhidwa ndi ndondomeko ya chiwerengero pamene chiwerengero chosiyana cha ma atomu chikukumana nacho, ndipo chitsogozo cha ma atomu oyenda m'munsi amasankhidwa. Mwachitsanzo, ngati chiwerengero chowerengera chiwerengero chimodzi, chiwerengero cha spiroatom ndi 3, 5, 7, 10, ndi nambala ya spiroatoms kumbali inayo ndi 3, 5, 7, 9, ndiye chiwerengero cha chiwerengero chachiwiri wasankhidwa. . Pachifukwa ichi, motsatira nambala yoyamba, chiwerengero pakati pa ma atomu awiri ndi 7 ndi 10, ndipo ndi nambala yosiyana, 7 ndi 9. Kuwerengera kwa atomu yowonongeka pambuyo pake sikofunikira, ndipo kulongosola kwa chiwerengero chafotokozedwa ndi chiwerengero cha nambala 9.

Pogwiritsa ntchito mphete zambiri zapiro, nambala yoyamba pamabuku akusonyeza kuti atomu mu mphete yoyamba yapafupi ndi spiro atomu ndi nambala imodzi. Manambala otsalira amaimira chiwerengero cha ma atomu pakati pa ma atomu a spiro, kapena ma atomu omwe ali pamphepete. Nambala iliyonse imasiyanitsidwa ndi nthawi (Chingerezi nthawi). Muchitsanzo ichi, pali ma atomu awiri (1 ndi 2) pamaso pa spiroatom yoyamba (3). Palibe ma atomu pakati pa 3 ndi 4 spiroatoms, zomwezo ndi zoona kwa spiroatoms ku 4 ndi 5, 5 ndi 6. Pali ma atomu awiri pa mphete yachiwiri, 6 ndi 5, 5 ndi 4, ndipo pali imodzi pakati pa 4 ndi 3.

Choncho, mndandanda wa [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1] umapezeka. Mu chitsanzo kumanja, pali awiri spiroatoms, kotero dzina dispiro liyamba. Mu mphete yoyamba yomaliza, pali ma atomu awiri, kutanthauza dzina dispiro [2. Kenaka, pali atomu imodzi ndi inayi mu mphete ina yomwe imatha pakati pa spiroatoms, powatchula mayina awiri [2.1.3 5]. XMUMX yachiwiri, yowonjezeredwa ngati njira yomwe idzakumane ndi chiwerengero cha atomu pambuyo pa chiwerengero cha atomu mu mphete yotsiriza, nthawi yomaliza kuwonjezera ma XMUMX ndi XMUMX atomu pakati pa 5 ndi 9 spiroatoms Ndipo onjezani alkane kukhala ndi chiwerengero chomwecho cha ma atomu a spiro compound, decane, dzinaispiro [10 3 .5 2.1.3] chiwonetsero chotchulidwa ndi dzina.

Maina ambiri a spiro compounds
Pulogalamu ya monospirocyclic imatchula dzina la kholo la hydrocarbon malinga ndi ma atomu a mpweya omwe amapanga mapangidwe; ma atomu onse pa mphete ya spiro amawerengedwa mu dongosolo la mphete yaying'ono ndi mphete yaikulu ndipo atrosi ya spiro ndi yochepetsedwa; ndiye iwo amatsatiridwa ndi mabwalo apakati. Mndandanda wa chiwerengero cha mphete yonseyo imasonyezedwa ndi chiwerengero cha ma atomu a mpweya omwe amathiridwa pakati pa spiro atomu, kuphatikizapo patsogolo pa dzina la unyolo wa hydrocarbon wofanana ndi mphete yonse; ziwerengerozi zimasiyanitsidwa ndi chidutswa chochepa, mwa mawonekedwe: nkhono [a, b] an alkane.

Zosakanikirana zowonongeka

Mphuno ya anomeric ya mphete ya heterospiral imatanthawuza kuti ma atomu awiri a electron kapena awiri okhawo a ma electron mu conformation ali mosiyana kuchepetsa nthawi ya dipole ya molecule ndi kuchepetsa mphamvu ya intramolecular. Mu 1968, gulu la kafukufuku la Descotes poyamba limapanga zotsatira za anomeric. Ataphunzira za bicyclic acetal, anapeza kuti mankhwala awiriwa ali ndi 57% ya chiwombankhanga ndi 43% ya chiwombankhanga chosakaniza mu 80 C. Chiwerengero cha chiwerengero cha trans Kusiyana kwa mphamvu kwa 0.71 kJ / mol. Chifukwa cha zotsatira za anomeric za cis zovuta, kuthamanga kwapakati sikuli ndi zotsatira zoterozo.

Chikhalidwe

Nkhono zina zimakhala ndi matenda axial. Spiroatoms ikhoza kukhala zipangizo za chiral, ngakhale atakhala opanda malo osiyana omwe amafunikira kuti asamalidwe. Pamene mphete ziwiri zili zofanana, CIP dongosolo limapereka patsogolo pazowonjezerapo kukweza kwa mphete imodzi ndi chinthu chimodzi choyambirira. Ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamene mpheteyo siili yofanana.

Mapuloteni angapangidwe ndi zotsatirazi:

• Pulogalamu ya Alicyclic

Izi ndizomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala omwe ali aliphatic ndi compact cyclic. Zili ndi mphete imodzi kapena yambiri yosakanizidwa ndi carbocyclic, koma mphete sizikhala zonunkhira.

• Naphthenic

Malingana ndi kukula kwa mphete, naphthenes akhoza kusankhidwa kukhala ang'onoang'ono, apakati ndi aakulu. Cyclopropane ndi cyclobutane zimaonedwa ngati zazing'ono. Kawirikawiri cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, ndi cyclooctane kuti cyclotridecane ndi zazikulu kukula, ndipo zazikulu zimatengedwa kukhala naphthenes.

Cycloolefin

Ichi ndi phokoso la hydrocarbon yomwe ili ndi mgwirizano wawiri wa carbon-carbon carbon. Masoolefini ophweka amakhala ndi cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene ndi cyclohexene, pamene nyongolotsi zimakhala ndi cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. Dikirani. Ma olefini ena, monga cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, amatha kupanga mapuloteni kuti apange ma polima.

• Mafuta otentha a hydrocarbon

Ma hydrocarboni osavuta komanso ofunikira kwambiri ndi a benzeneand omwe amadziwika nawo monga toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene ndi zina zotero. Muzinyalala, mphete zina zonunkhira sizikhala zomangamanga kwathunthu, koma maatomu a kaboni mwawo amasankhidwa ndi nayitrogeni, oksijeni, sulfure ndi zinthu zina. Timawatcha maheteracycles, monga yuan asanu ngati furan. Chovalacho chimaphatikizapo atomu ya oksijeni ndipo pyrrole ili ndi atomu ya nayitrogeni.Thiophene ili ndi atomu ya sulfure ndi zina zotero.

Ndipo zonunkhira zingagawidwe mu:

• Mavitamini a monocyclic a hydrocarbon
• Polycyclic onunkhira hydrocarbon
Mafuta a hydrocarboni onunkhira omwe ali ndi mawonekedwe a unyolo amadziwika kuti aliphatic arenes, ndipo mitundu yodziwika bwino ya hydrocarboni yodetsedwa ndi ethanol, ethylbenzene, styrene, ndi zina zotero.
• Makina a Heterocyclic

Amakhala ndi mphete yonyekemera yomwe ilibe mphete ya hterocyclic kapena substitent. Ambiri a iwo amadziwika kapena angathe kukhala ndi khansa. Chophweka kwambiri cha mankhwalawa ndi naphthalene, ndi mphete ziwiri zonunkhira, komanso tricyclic mankhwala ruthenium ndi phenanthrene.

Mafuta a hydrocyboni a Polycyclic ndi osalowerera, omwe sakhala polelekesi omwe amapezeka mu malasha ndi tar. Zomwe zimapangidwanso ndi zinthu zosawotcha (mwachitsanzo, injini ndi zotentha, pamene nkhalango imayaka moto woyaka, etc.). Mwachitsanzo, amapangidwa ndi moto wosakwanira wa mafuta omwe amapezeka ngati nkhuni, makala amtengo, mafuta, ndi fodya. Komanso amapezeka mu nyama yophika.

Mafuta obiriwira a polycyclic pamwamba pa mphete zitatu ali ndi kutsika kwapang'ono komanso kutsika kwa mpweya m'madzi. Pamene kulemera kwa maselo kumawonjezeka, zonse zimatha kuchepa ndi kupuma kwa mpweya. Bicyclic polycyclic mankhwala ofunkhira amakhala ndi kuchepa kwapang'ono komanso kuthamanga kwa mpweya. Ma polycyclic aromatic compounds amapezeka kwambiri m'nthaka komanso m'dothi kusiyana ndi madzi ndi mpweya. Komabe, mankhwala obiriwira a polycyclic amapezeka nthawi zambiri pazomwe zimayimitsidwa m'mlengalenga.

Mitundu yambiri ya mafuta onunkhira ya polycyclic imatchulidwa ngati khansa. Lipoti lazitsulo lachipatala limasonyeza kuti nthawi yayitali kuika kwa polycyclic zonunkhira mankhwala kungawononge khansa ya pakhungu, khansa yamapapo, khansa ya m'mimba ndi khansa ya chiwindi. Mafuta obiriwira a polycyclic amatha kuwononga majini m'thupi, amachititsa kukula kwa maselo a khansa ndikuwonjezera chiŵerengero cha khansa.

Pamene kulemera kwake kukuwonjezeka, chiwerengero cha mankhwala obiriwira a polycyclic chiwonjezerekanso, ndipo chiwopsezo chachikulu chikuchepa. Pulogalamu ya polycyclic yonunkhira, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene), inali yoyamba ya khansa yotulukira mankhwala.

ntchito

Wothandizira wothandizira

Voliyumu shrinkage ya polymer nthawi ya polymerization kapena solidification imayambitsidwa ndi mphamvu ya van der Waals pakati pa mamolekyu a monomer mu madzi amadzimadzi kapena ma molekyulu otalika, ndipo mtunda wa pakati pa mamolekyu ndi wawukulu; Pambuyo polymerization kapena crosslinking, Kusiyanitsa kutalika kwa mabungwe pakati pa zigawo zimangowonjezera kutentha kwa polima. Zimatchulidwa kuti shrinkage nthawi zina imayambitsa polima, monga kuchititsa kukalamba kwa polima, kutembenuka, komanso kuchepa kwa ntchito. Pofuna kuthana ndi vuto la kupopera kwa polima, amisiri amachititsa khama, koma kawirikawiri amatha kuchepetsa komanso sangathe kuthetseratu kutaya kwa mphamvu. Mpaka 1972, Bailey et al. anapanga mitundu ya spiro compounds ndipo anapeza kuti mankhwalawa ali opangidwa ndi mavitamini. Pamene buku silikutha, limawonjezeka. Kupeza kwa anthu otchuka kwambiri kwachititsa chidwi ndi asayansi ambiri, ndipo kafukufuku wambiri wachitika. Amadzimadzi owonjezereka akhala othandizira kwambiri mapulogalamu apolisi. Mafakitale monga spiro orthoester ndi spiro orthocarbonate ndi abwino kwambiri opanga zinthu ndipo akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito pokonzekera mapangidwe amphamvu, omangiriza kwambiri, zomangamanga komanso zipangizo zamankhwala. Kusinthidwa kwa ma polymers ndi cholinga cha oligomers omwe ali ndi magulu ogwira ntchito.

Electroluminescence

Kaya mankhwalawa amapanga kuwala kapena kutalika kwa kuwala kochepa komanso kuyera kwa dzuwa kumadalira makamaka mankhwala. Fluorescence kawirikawiri imapezeka mu mamolekyu ndi mapulaneti okhwima ndi makonzedwe ogwiritsidwa ntchito, omwe amachititsa kuti magetsi azigwiritsidwa ntchito ndi maonekedwe a mamolekyulu, omwe ndi opindulitsa kusintha bwino fluorescence. Pali mitundu yambiri yowunika. Mitundu yayikuluyi ndi: mphete ya spiro, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole ndi mankhwala othandizira zitsulo. Zina mwa izo, mankhwala okometsera spirocyclic ali ndi machitidwe akuluakulu okhudzana ndi kukonzedwa bwino ndi kukongola, kutentha kwakukulu kwa galasi ndi kutentha kwakukulu. The EL chip ndizosavuta ndipo sizikufuna zipangizo zovuta, kotero n'zotheka kuchepetsa mtengo wogulitsa nthawiyi ndi kukonzekera mosavuta zipangizo zamakono.

mankhwala ophera tizilombo

Mphete yosakanikirana ndi spiro yomwe ili ndi hetero atomu sizowonjezereka kukana kukana chifukwa cha njira yawo yapadera, ndipo yathandizidwa kwambiri pa chitukuko cha mankhwala ophera tizilombo. Mwachitsanzo: Rudi et al. 3,9-diydro-2,4,8,10-dipithipho-3,9-tetraoxa-5.5-diphospho [3,9] imanena kuti 3,9-dichloro-3,9-tetraoxa-2,4,8,10-diphosphaspiro [3,9] yosavomerezeka-5.5-dioxide ndi sulfide Hydrogen inagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga buku la spiro, XNUMX-dihydro-XNUMX-dithio-XNUMX-tetraoxa-XNUMX-diphospho [XNUMX] chitsutsani. Zotsatira zake ndi kalasi yatsopano ya tizilombo ta organophosphate ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe zimachotsa mpiru, ragweed, ndi zina kuchokera ku tirigu, tirigu, thonje ndi soya.